Advocacy is an important way for people with a learning disability to have more choice and control in their lives.
Advocacy is varied in the ways in which it works, but operates on certain basic principles and approaches.
Advocacy can take a number of forms, but independent advocacy such as citizen advocacy, peer advocacy and self-advocacy should be differentiated from the roles played by family and professional carers.
The government would like everybody with a learning disability who wants advocacy to have access to it. The Mental Capacity Act 2005 introduced a new kind of advocate.
Download our fact sheet about advocacy
Chemical restraint is the use of medication for the purpose of alleviating or managing the symptoms or behaviours associated with an underlying psychological condition.
Download our fact sheet about chemical restraint
Communication is a basic human right. Communication is the means through which we control our existence. It is the way we make friends and build relationships. It is the way we become independent and make choices. It is the way we learn. It is the way we express our feelings, thoughts and emotions. It is the way we make sense of the world around us. Communication works through a two-way process by which messages are sent and understood between individuals or groups of people.
Download our factsheet about communication
There is a recognised call for aggressive service users with mental health problems to be managed within frameworks that acknowledge the person’s specific and diverse needs. Such frameworks expect that de-escalation strategies and its general ethos should pervade and inform the process of managing any crisis event.
It has been identified, however, that the wholesale application of de-escalation techniques, designed for the use with hearing people, may need some adaptation when used with members of the deaf community; otherwise such strategies may prove less effective.
Download our factsheet about de-escalation and Deaf people
Family carers and personalisation
Personalisation is the word that is commonly used to describe a different way of delivering social care. It means that the whole system becomes person centred; this includes local government, organisations providing care and support, professionals and communities.
Personalisation will therefore mean big changes in many areas and it will take many years to get right. This change is often referred to as the 'transformation of social care'.
These changes are important because many people say that the current system doesn't work in a way that is easy for them to have choice and control. We also know that the current system will not be affordable as more people live longer and young people with profound disabilities survive into adulthood.
People rightly expect to have support that is tailored to their needs, to be able to have choice and control over things such as who they live with, who supports them, how and when they receive support and what they do during the day. Family carers need to be supported in their caring role and to lead a fulfilling life themselves. They also want more say over how this happens, so they get the support that is right for them.
Download our factsheet about Family carers and personalisation
The British government introduced the HRA in 1998 to make rights drawn from the European Convention on Human Rights enforceable in courts throughout the UK. It came into effect in October 2000. The Convention was itself passed by the Council of Europe in 1950 as a response to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights made by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1948. The UK was one of the first countries to sign the Convention, in 1953.
Download our factsheet about human rights
Intensive Interaction is a practical approach to interacting with people with learning disabilities who do not find it easy communicating or being social. In Intensive interaction the carer, support worker, speech and language therapist or teacher works on being a better communication partner and so supports the person with learning disabilities develop confidence and competence as a communicator. Download our factsheet about intensive interaction
Key Considerations in Physical Interventions
A short document by Sharon Paley, our Development Manager for Behaviour Support, outlining BILD's work in this area. It covers our establishing a framework for good practice, issues around training and physical interventions, and the importance of creating a framework of support for people who challenge.
Download a copy
There is more information in this website's positive behaviour support pages.
Learning disability is a label which is convenient for certain purposes, but people with learning disabilities are always people first.
Different ways of defining and classifying learning disability are used, but all are open to some interpretation.
There are few official statistics for numbers of people with a learning disability, and our knowledge is based on studies of prevalence.
The causes of learning disabilities are not fully classified, but are mainly environmental or genetic factors, or chromosomal abnormalities.
Support for people with learning disabilities has moved away from the medical model to a social model based on inclusion and integration.
Download our factsheet about learning disabilities >
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Loss, bereavement and death
This factsheet looks at some of the ways a parent or carer can help a person with a learning disability to understand and cope with loss, bereavement and death.
In the past, people with a learning disability were not always told about the death of family or friends, because it was often thought they would not understand. This is not the case and someone with a learning disability will grieve in the same way as anyone else.
Download our fact sheet about Loss, bereavement and death
Older people with a learning disability
All older people need to be valued, seen as individuals and treated with dignity and respect and people with learning disabilities are no different. Older people with learning disabilities have the same needs as other older people. Like others, people with learning disabilities have the potential to age successfully and have choice and control over their lives. They can lead healthy and productive lives with the right individual and community support.
Download our factsheet about older people with a learning disability
See also our Ageing Well project pages >
Self injurious behaviour
Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) has been defined as “Any behaviour, initiated by the individual, which directly results in physical harm to that individual. Physical harm will be considered to include bruising, laceration, bleeding, bone fractures and breakages and other tissue damage” (Murphy and Wilson, 1985).
Download our fact sheet about self injurious behaviour
Information from BILD's Centre for the Advancement of Positive Behaviour Support (CAPBS)
The use of seclusion, isolation and time out
What is seclusion? Seclusion is defined as:
‘The supervised confinement and isolation of a person, away from other users of services, in an area from which the person is prevented from leaving.’ Department of Health, Para 87 P and P 2014
[This information sheet is currently being updated.]
Download this CAPBS information sheet >
The Centre has produced information sheets on other subjects that may be of interest, including: 'Information on use of tents in schools', 'Ethical and legal principles for locking doors in children's homes', and ' Questions to ask about the use of physical restraint in schools'.
Find out more on the CAPBS resources page >
Please note: BILD has made every effort to ensure the accuracy of the information contained within its fact sheets, but cannot be held liable for any actions taken based on the information provided.
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